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BREGUET Br693

 


Technical Specifications
Type
Bomber of two-seater Assault with median wings and retractable landing gear
Date first flight
March 23, 1938
Wingspan
15.36 m 
Lenght
9.41
Height
3.20 m 
Wing Area
29.02 m2 
Empty Weight
3006 Kg 
Max. Takeoff Weight
4892 Kg 
Cruising Speed
400 km/h. 
Maximum Speed
480 km/h at 5000 m 
Climbing Speed
4000m in 8mn 30s 
Service ceilling
9500 m 
Range
1450 kms
Crew
2 Men
Motorization
2 Radial engine Gnôme Rhône 14 M6/7 of 570ch each
Armament
2 fixed machine-gun MAC 34 of 7.5mm in front
1 fixed Cannon Hispano Suiza of 20mm in the nose

1 mobile machine-gun MAC 34 de 7.5mm iback in dorsal position
1 fixed machine gun MAC 34 of 7.5mm back in ventral position
8 x 50Kgs de bombes

 


Production

216 Breguet of the Br690 serial have been built since the date of the first flight on March 23, 1938. They are divided into:

  • 1 Breguet 690
  • 78 Breguet 691
  • 128 Breguet 693
  • 8 Breguet 695
  • 1 Breguet 697 / 700

To date, out of the 216 aircraft manufactured ,122 are listed in the list below :

 


Historical

In 1934, the Technical Services launched a program for a C3 three-seater fighter, intended for interception, escort, or command to hunt. Breguet responds with his Br690, a metallic three-seater aircraft with cantilever wing. It is powered by two Hispano-Suiza 14AB from 670hp to takeoff. Its armament consists of two 20mm cannons in the nose and a rear-mounted machine gun. The chosen engines being reserved in priority to the Potez 630 finally retained by the program C3, it is only on March 23, 1938 that he will make his first flight. It proved to be more powerful than the Potez 630 ...

Breguet then presents his aircraft as a two-seat assault bomber (AB2) which becomes the Breguet 691 AB2. He thus received a bomb bay for 400kg of loads in place of the observer station. Its armament is modified and one of the front cannons and replaced by a machine gun of 7.5mm while a rear fixed machine gun is added. The engine remains that of the Br690, and the landing gear, weak point of the aircraft, is modified. The first series plane flies on May 15, 1939, and deliveries in units begin in October at GBA I / 54.

Very quickly, the Hispano engines proved to be unreliable and were replaced by Rhone 14M 6/7 700 hp Gnome on take-off. The Br691 N ° 19 became the first Br693 AB2 and made its first flight on October 25, 1939. This new version replaced the Br691 on assembly lines from No. 79 which flew on March 22, 1940. Only 78 Br 691 were therefore built on the 200 commanded.

The Breguet Br693 differs from the Br691 by the disappearance of the tail wheel casing and by its more aerodynamic engine hoods: the Gnome Rhône, less large, have indeed allowed to reduce the size of the engine hoods. These are equipped with cooling flaps and flame arrestors. During the manufacture, a second version appears on which the hoods evolve. Shorter, they lose their flame guards and flaps. The exhaust is made via flat pipes with propulsive effect, which allows to gain a few kilometers hours.

In the face of the shortage of engines, the Ministry of Air is looking for foreign engine manufacturers, particularly in the United States. Pratt & Whitney SB4G TWIN WASP were mounted on the Breguet 690 n ° 01 which became the Breguet 695. The assembly of these engines required some modifications. The new lighter engines, however, are more bulky. Hoods thus become wider and penalize a little the performances and the side vision. The Breguet 695 made its first flight on 3 March 1940.

The first Breguets are delivered in units from October 1939, and on 1 March 1940, 119 Breguet 691 and 693 are present in the various GBA.

Although the device is well born, it is nevertheless perfectible. The main problem is the fragility of the train. It is the cause of numerous accidents and despite many modifications, the problem will never be completely eradicated. On the Breguet 691, the Hispano-Suiza engines, which are very fragile, require too much maintenance, which quickly led to the Breguet 691's assignment to training roles. We can also deplore the lack of adequate armor, a recurring problem on French aircraft, but which is of great importance for an aircraft that will have to face the formidable Flak on every mission.

The Breguets are engaged for the first time on May 12, 1940 in the region of Maastricht. The attack was murderous with 4 persons killed and eleven prisoners ... The French crews discovered Flak and limits of the attack during flight shaving It is a whole doctrine that is being challenged. Devices that escape the Flak are assaulted by the BF109 and losses will be numerous throughout the Campaign De France: out of 211 Breguets delivered, 119 were lost including 68 in combat.

After Armisitice, only two out of five GBA are kept in the Air Force of Vichy. In 1942, the Breguets seized by the Germans and the Italians were scrapped and the engines were recovered to equip the Henshel 129

 


Versions

Breguet 690

First prototype of the series which made its first flight on March 23rd, 1938. It responds to a program C3 (Three-seaters Fighter) It is a three-seater aircraft all-metal twin-engine cantilever and retractable train. It has a twin-tail stabilizer It is powered by 2 Hispano-Suiza 14AB of 680hp and is armed with 2 guns of 20mm in the nose and a machine gun of 7.5mm towards the rear..

Breguet 691
Two-seater version derived from the Breguet 690 presented as a two-seat assault bomber (AB2). The post of the third crew member is replaced by a bomb bay that can hold 400kg of bombs. Its armament is modified. It consists of one 20mm cannon and two 7.5mm machine guns in the nose, 1 fixed 7.5mm ventral machine gun and one rear 7.5mm machine gun
Breguet 693 1st version

The Br691 engines proved unreliable, the Breguet 691 No. 79 was converted to Breguet 693 with the adoption of Rhone 14M-6/7 Gnome engines. It makes its first flight on 2 March 1940. Hoods have a more aerodynamic form with shutters of cooling and equipped with 5 double adorn flames and simple four.

Breguet 693 2nd version
On this version, the engine hoods are redone. Shorter, they no longer have cooling flaps. They are equipped with flat exhaust pipes with propulsive effects which must allow to gain a few km / h
Breguet 695
This version is equipped with American engines Pratt & Whitney SB 4G. These, lighter, are nevertheless more imposing and the engine hoods are wider. This somewhat offsets the gains expected by the additional power.

 


Bibliography

1 ) _ Editions Larivière
Le Fana de l'Aviation N° 193 - 194 - 195

 

2 ) _ Editions Lela Presse :
Magazine "Avions" N° 67

 

3) _ Editions LELA PRESSE ; Collection "Les Ailes de la Gloire"
- N°1 :BREGUET 690_691_693_695_700

 

4) _Magazine "ICARE"
- N°80 - 87 - 94

 

 


Photos Album

 


Drawing 3 views

Links to WebSite
"Naval Aviation"