In 1929, the Morane Company
responded to the Ed2 program (Start School Two-seater) by the Morane
MS300 and MS301, these two versions differ only by their engine.
They are of traditional construction: "parasol" winged
monoplane reinforced by two masts and presenting a strong arrow.
The train is fixed with independent wheels without carènage.
The front structure of the fuselage is made of aluminum, smooth,
coupled and lined, while the rear part, made of wood, is interlaced.
The instructor and student sit in two separate cockpits in tandem.
The MS300 is powered by a Salmson 7Ac 95hp without hood resulting
in a two-bladed propeller, the MS301 receiving him Lorraine 5Pa
100ch, partially flipped: only the cylinders exceed.
The MS 300 makes its first
flight in February 1930 and the MS301 in July. The latter will be
presented from November 28th of the same year at the Grand Palais
during the 12th Aerospace Show. Neither version will be retained:
the takeoff distance of both aircraft is 150m, while the military
require less than 120m ...
Morane responds by realizing
the MS302 whose power is increased to 120ch thanks to the adoption
of a Salmson 9Ac. The tests resume from May 1931 and the specifications
for take-off are achieved. Multiple versions are available (see
Description of versions below) before the birth of the version that
will be produced in series: The MS315.
After the many iterations
of previous versions, the MS315 finally takes the wing of the MS300,
with however reduced surface fins. It is now powered by a 135hp
Salmson 9Nc driving a two-bladed metal propeller, and made its first
flights in late 1930. Tests being satisfactory, the state passes
several orders for the new aircraft: 4 in August 1932, 30 in October
1932, 80 in 1934, 75 in 1935, 20 in 1937, 30 in 1938, ... More than
240 copies will be made before the Armistice of June 1940.
Also note the MS316 which,
powered by a Lorraine 5Pc 120hp, will be sold in Peru. The 6 exported
copies, will be remotorized after wear of their mechanics, by Kinner
B5, American 5-cylinder engines.
The MS315, properties of
the French state, will be paid into the flying schools of the Air
Force from 1936 (Istres, Salon de Provence, ...), but also in civilian
schools to promote the aviation of "Tourism" in France.
The aircraft, with very good qualities for acrobatics, will also
be used brilliantly by famous drivers such as Michel Détroyat
or Pierre Fleurquin. During the German invasion, some MS315 will
be captured and used by the Luftwaffe for schooling. After the war,
the MS315 will continue to serve in school until the 1950s.
In 1945, after the Liberation,
110 other apparatuses will be manufactured and affected in the civil
schools. Approximately 45 of them will be re-motorized by a radial-engine
220W W670K-6A starting in 1960, and will take the designation MS317.
They will also receive an electric starter and a tail wheel.
In total, there will be nearly
355 models that will be built, which makes the Morane MS315 a great